The China Employer-Employee Survey (CEES) surveyed on average eight different individuals, spanning CEOs, middle managers, and workers, within the same manufacturing business. \citep{china} The CEES is conducted by a team of researchers including Hong Cheng (Wuhan University), Yang Du (CASS), Hongbin Li (Stanford), and Albert Park (HKUST). Responses were collected by enumerators who visited the physical location of the business. The survey is larger than the US MOPS and contains seven modules. The management module is based on the WMS and the US MOPS and contains all 16 questions from the US MOPS. Businesses having more than two employees were eligible for inclusion in the sample. For this study we analyze data from 1,986 firms from the 2017 CEES survey wave. Results are unweighted.


For Croatia, 15 of the questions from the US MOPS are embedded in the Firm Capabilities Survey conducted by the World Bank. Direct translations 15 of the 16 questions from the US MOPS were included in the survey module. Instead of the question from the US MOPS on reassignment or dismissal of managers, the module included a subjective evaluation of how well the firm was managed. The survey sample consists of 727 small and medium-sized firms (having 10-250 employees) in both manufacturing and services. The results of the Firm Capabilities Survey can be matched to administrative tax data on firm performance. A total of 4,307 firms were contacted across the manufacturing and services sectors, and the survey achieved a response rate of 17%. The 1,888 manufacturing firms contacted for the survey yielded a sample of 314 firms.


Morten Bennedsen and Daniela Scur spearheaded the MOPS Denmark, which was funded through Copenhagen University (KU). The MOPS Denmark was administered by the survey firm Epinion using an official government email inbox utilized by Statistics Denmark. The survey included a direct translation of the 16 management questions from the US MOPS and was sent to 26,000 firms from the universe of firms with more than five employees. Responses were received from a total of 4,482 firms, 17\% of contacted firms. 743 of respondent firms were in the manufacturing sector. Results of the MOPS Denmark can be linked to outcome data from all Statistics Denmark firm surveys. Researchers with access to Statistics Denmark data may be able to access data from the MOPS Denmark on request.


The Finnish Management and Organizational Practices Survey (FMOPS) was conducted by Statistics Finland and funded by the Strategic Research Council for reference year 2016. The FMOPS included 16 questions on management practices that were translated from the US MOPS. Responses were collected by internet survey instrument. Respondents received the survey by email, and managers were identified by phone calls before the survey was sent. The sample for the FMOPS consisted of 2,509 manufacturing establishments, of which 25% responded. To be included in the sample, the establishment must belong to a firm with at least 50 employees and the establishment itself must have at least four employees. The results of the FMOPS can be matched to outcome data from Statistics Finland’s Business Register database and financial statement data from the businesses. Ohlsbom and Maliranta (2021) provide analysis of the results of the FMOPS. For our analyses, we use a total of 582 establishments for whom data could be matched to outcome data. Researchers may obtain access to FMOPS data by contacting Statistics Finland’s research services and completing an application for a license to use the data.


The Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), the Institute for Employment Research (IAB), and the Institute for Applied Social Sciences (infas) partnered to run one of the earliest surveys of its kind, The German Management and Organizational Practices Survey (GMOP). Laible and Gorg (2019) provide an overview of the GMOP and its findings. The GMOP collected data from manufacturing establishments for reference year 2013. Respondents were also asked to recall their practices from 2008. Responses were collected via paper and electronic instruments. The GMOP included translations of the 16 management questions from the US MOPS as well as additional questions specific to the German business environment. The GMOP also collected data on establishment performance. For our analysis, we use only the questions that correspond to the US MOPS survey. The GMOP was sent to 35,000 establishments but achieved a relatively low response rate of six percent. Any manufacturing establishment with at least 25 employees that was subject to social security in 2011 was eligible to be included in the sample. We utilize 1,927 observations matched to outcome data from Bureau van Dijk. Researchers interested in utilizing the GMOP for replication studies are encouraged to contact


The Bank of Italy’s annual INVIND survey included a module based on the US MOPS in 2020. Approximately 5,000 firms were asked 8 questions about their management practices in 2019. The INVIND also includes questions regarding outcomes and expectations and is representative of firms with at least 20 employees. The survey is conducted via in-person and telephone interviews and achieved a 30% response rate. The INVIND MOPS included eight questions. The survey content was translated from the US MOPS and underwent additional cognitive testing. The INVIND MOPS combined questions from the US MOPS that asked about practices for managers and non-managers separately. Questions from the US MOPS on the location of production display boards, awareness of production targets, the share of workers receiving bonuses, and reassignment or dismissal of underperforming managers were not included in the survey. The analysis sample for this study consists of responses from 1,122 firms. In a timely study, Lamorgese et al. (2021) use results from the INVIND MOPS to study the role that management practices played in firms’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers can carry out statistical and econometric analyses without direct access to the microdata via


In Japan, the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) conducted the JP MOPS in multiple survey waves. The first survey wave in 2016 covered the manufacturing sector, followed by a wave in 2017 covering food and drink retail, and information services sectors, and a wave in 2018 covering the wholesale, road freight transport, and medical sectors. Manufacturing establishments having at least 30 employees were eligible for inclusion in the sample. An additional wave for the manufacturing sector was conducted in 2021. The survey closely follows the US MOPS, including direct translations of the 16 management questions from the US MOPS for the manufacturing sector, with some modifications of the language to make the questions more applicable to non-manufacturing sectors. Responses were collected by mail. For most industries, the response rate for the JP MOPS was greater than 30%. For manufacturing the response rate was 32%. For our analysis, we utilize 10,081 establishment-level observations from the first wave of the manufacturing sector data linked to outcome data from the Japanese Census of Manufactures and the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities. Kambayashi et al. (2021) provide a comparative study of the JP MOPS across sectors. Residents of Japan may access microdata for research projects approved by ESRI.


Mexico’s National Survey on Productivity and Competitiveness of Micro, Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Mexico (ENAPROCE) was conducted in 2018 and 2015 by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI). We focus on firms with more than ten employees as they received the full management questionnaire, whereas micro enterprises were only asked four of the management questions to reduce respondent burden. We utilize results of the 2018 survey, which was conducted as a panel, following up on 25,456 respondents from the 2015 wave. The survey had a high response rate of approximately 90%. ENAPROCE included direct translations of the 16 US MOPS management questions for the manufacturing sector, with adaptations of the language for non-manufacturing sectors. The content underwent additional piloting and testing before implementation. Microenterprises, which are not included in our sample, received only four of the management questions. Enumerators collected responses for firms in-person. Our sample consists of 3,729 manufacturing businesses. ENAPROCE included questions on firm performance but is based on the 2014 Economic Census, and results of ENAPROCE can be linked to outcomes from the 2014 Economic Census for robustness checks. Bloom et al. (2022) provide an overview of ENAPROCE and utilize the management-firm size relationship as a measure of misallocation. Researchers with approved projects can access ENAPROCE microdata at the INEGI Microdata Lab.


Rabobank and Utrecht University conducted the MOPS Netherlands as a stand alone survey of firms in the manufacturing, retail, and services sectors in 2018. The survey included direct translations of the 16 US MOPS questions for the manufacturing sector. Modified versions of the questions were used for the retail and services sectors. Responses were collected via internet survey instrument. The sample consisted of 1,708 employer firms, and the survey obtained a response rate of 59%. We analyze a sample of 377 manufacturing firms. Data from the MOPS Netherlands is available upon request. Groenewegen et al. (2021) report results from a newer survey of businesses in the Netherlands that utilized seven questions from the US MOPS.


The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) conducted the Management and Organizational Practices Survey in Pakistan (PK-MOPS) as a supplement to the Census of Manufacturing Industries (CMI) for 2017-2018. The PK-MOPS underwent a thorough development process. A direct translation of the US MOPS was piloted on 82 firms in Punjab, followed by a first survey wave in 2015 that was limited to 2,010 firms in Punjab (Lemos et al.; 2016). In the pilot and both survey waves, enumerators hand-delivered and collected the survey form from manufacturing establishments. The second wave of the PK-MOPS was delivered to 78,687 establishments, making the PK-MOPS the largest survey in our study. Responses were collected from 25,392 establishments, a response rate of 32\%. Our analysis sample is restricted to 11,159 establishments having at least ten employees. Results from the second wave of the PK-MOPS are reported in Choudhary
et al. (2018).


The Management and Organizational Practices Survey in Russia was conducted by the World Bank as a stand-alone survey in 2017. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with small and medium-sized (25-250 employees) manufacturing firms. The survey included translations of all 16 questions from the US MOPS. Enumerators attempted to contact 12,912 firms, successfully reaching 5,864 firms in five federal districts that were in-scope for the survey. Of these firms, approximately 17\% provided valid responses to the survey. Results of the survey can be matched to performance data from Bureau van Dijk. Our analysis sample consists of 947 firms. Results from the Management and Organizational Practices Survey in Russia are reported in Grover, Goswami and Torre (2019).

United Kingdom

The Office of National Statistics (ONS) in the United Kingdom has collected two survey waves of the Management and Expectations Survey (MES) for 2017 and 2020, after conducting a pilot survey for 2016 (see Bloom et al. (2021)) The pilot survey included 8 of the questions from the US MOPS questionnaire. Subsequent waves included 12 questions. The survey content underwent additional testing, and language was modified for sectors other than manufacturing. Questions from the US MOPS on the location of display boards and the share of managers (non-managers) who received bonuses were excluded, and questions on reassignment and dismissal of managers (non-managers) were combined into a single question that also included probation and training as examples of responses to under-performance. The 2017 survey sample consisted of 25,006 firms that were representative of the population of UK firms having more than ten employees. The 2017 survey wave yielded responses from 7,756 firms with positive employment in the Annual Business Survey, to which the MES can be linked. Restricting to responses from manufacturing businesses yields a sample of 1,329. Data may be available upon request for accredited researchers having access to the ONS.


The Annual Survey of Economic Activity conducted by the National Institute of Statistics (INE) in Uruguay included a management module in its 2019 survey wave. The survey was sent electronically to 4,300 firms having at least ten employees in all sectors of the economy and yielded a 79% response rate. Response to the Annual Survey of Economic Activity is required by law. All firms having more than 50 employees and/or monthly sales above $US 160,670,500 are included in the sample with certainty. The management module included direct translations of all 16 questions from the US MOPS, although additional examples were included for the service sector. Due to the structure of the Annual Survey of Economic Activity, firm performance data is also available for 2017 and 2018. Limiting the responses to businesses in the manufacturing sector yields 550 observations. Data may be available upon request from the INE with authorization from the National Agency of Development (ANDE) and the entrepreneurial organization (ACDE), who sponsored the module.

United States